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Detailed division of waterproof construction! Speed collection!

Published on: December 11, 2019 source: Dianbao waterproof building materials [font: large in Small

? 1、 Construction of rigid waterproof materials

The construction of rigid waterproof material mainly refers to the construction of waterproof mortar or waterproof concrete. Rigid waterproof material refers to the cement mortar and concrete with a certain impermeability prepared by reasonably adjusting the mix proportion of cement mortar and concrete, reducing or restraining porosity, improving pore structure characteristics and increasing the compactness of the interface of various materials by using cement, sand and stone aggregates as raw materials or adding a small amount of additives and high molecular polymers Class of waterproof materials.

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2、 Construction of film waterproof material

Waterproof coating (also known as film waterproof material) is a kind of fluid or semi fluid material, which is painted on the surface of the base course. After solvent or moisture volatilization, or chemical reaction among the components, a certain elastic film is formed to isolate the surface from water and play the role of waterproof and moisture-proof.

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The development and application of waterproof coatings in China began in the 1960s. At first, it was mainly asphalt based waterproof coatings. In recent ten years, it has developed from traditional waterproof coatings based on asphalt to polymer modified asphalt waterproof coatings and synthetic polymer waterproof coatings. Low, medium and high-grade series products have been developed and produced, with rich output and variety, which promotes the development of building waterproof engineering.

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The coating waterproof construction is divided into thin coating construction and thick coating construction according to the film thickness. Thin coatings are usually applied by brushing or spraying. Thick coating is often applied by troweling or scraping. Due to the different properties of coatings, the tools and processes used are also different. According to the needs of the project, the waterproof coating can be made into simple coating layer or adding matrix reinforcement material film (adding glass fiber cloth or chemical fiber, polyester fiber felt) to make one cloth two coating, two cloth three coating, multi cloth multi coating.

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3、 Waterproofing membrane construction

Waterproof membrane is an important variety of building waterproof materials. Generally, it can be divided into three categories: asphalt waterproofing membrane with asphalt as basic raw material, polymer modified asphalt waterproofing membrane with polymer modified asphalt as basic raw material and synthetic polymer waterproofing membrane with synthetic polymer material as basic raw material. The former is the traditional waterproof membrane, but its matrix material has been developed and applied, and still has a certain use in China's waterproof engineering; the latter two types of waterproof membrane represent the development direction of waterproof membrane, because of its superior performance, it is a new type of waterproof membrane to be vigorously developed and applied in China in the future.

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The common construction methods of coiled material waterproof include hot bonding method, cold bonding method, hot melting method, self-adhesive method, mechanical fixation method, and embedding method. Asphalt waterproof construction can be divided into three main ways: hot melt method, self-adhesive method and wet paving method.

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4、 Waterproof construction of metal plate (sheet)

The metal sheet is used as the main waterproof material of the roof. There are many kinds of metal plate, including zinc plate, aluminum zinc plate, aluminum alloy plate, aluminum magnesium alloy plate, titanium alloy plate, copper plate, stainless steel plate, etc. The thickness is generally 0.4-1.5mm, and the surface of the plate is generally coated. Due to the different materials and coating quality, the service life varies, some of which can reach more than 50 years; some of the boards are made in various shapes, some of which are composite plates, that is, the insulation layer is compounded between two layers of metal plates, and some are single plates; the construction methods of the plates are different, some plates are assembled on site after being processed in the factory, and some are processed on site according to the needs of roof engineering; Some of the insulation layer in the factory composite good, can also be made in the field. Therefore, there are various forms of metal sheet roofing, from large-scale public buildings to workshops, warehouses, residences and so on.

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5、 Waterproof construction of sealing materials

The sealing materials used in buildings refer to the materials used to fill the joints, cracks, door and window frames, glass edges, pipe joints or the joints with other structures, which play the role of water tightness and air tightness. ?

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The commonly used sealing materials mainly include modified asphalt sealing waterproof materials and synthetic polymer sealing waterproof materials. Their performance is quite different. The construction methods should be determined according to the specific materials. The commonly used construction methods include cold embedding method and hot pouring method.

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6、 Construction of grouting and plugging materials

The construction of grouting and plugging materials generally refers to that the slurry prepared by chemical materials is embedded in the grouting nozzle through the drilling hole, and injected into the structural cracks by using the pressure. After its diffusion and solidification, the purpose of waterproof, plugging, reinforcement and reinforcement can be achieved. It is often used to repair deep cracks in concrete structures. According to the grouting pressure and speed, it can be divided into high pressure fast grouting method and low pressure slow grouting method.

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02. According to whether heating operation is adopted during construction

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1、 Hot melt construction

Hot melt construction refers to the paving method of high polymer modified asphalt hot melt coiled material. Hot melt coiled material is a kind of coiled material which is coated with a layer of modified asphalt hot melt adhesive with high softening point in the process of factory production. It does not need to brush adhesive when paving, but pastes with the base directly after baking hot-melt adhesive with flame. This method is less affected by the climate during construction, and the drying degree of the surface of the base course is relatively loose, but the control of the temperature during baking is moderate. When it is used in roof engineering, the hot-melt coil can be paved by full bonding method or strip bonding method.

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2、 Cold bonding construction

Cold bonding construction usually refers to that the bonding material used in the paving of coiled materials is cold glue material, which does not need to be heated during construction. The cold bonding construction method is often used for high polymer modified asphalt waterproof coiled materials, especially synthetic polymer waterproof coiled materials. ?

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In the cold bonding construction of coiled materials, the bonding materials are usually selected according to the properties of the coiled materials, and the adhesive at the lap joints of the coiled materials is sometimes different from that of the base course. This is mainly because the adhesive at the lap joint has a stronger requirement on the bonding force, while the bonding force with the base can be appropriately reduced. Therefore, attention should be paid not to misuse and mix use during construction. The selection of adhesive is generally indicated in the coil instruction manual or supplied with the coil.

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Because of the fact that there is no need to boil the asphalt and other work during the cold paste construction of the coiled material, it brings great convenience to the construction, reduces the environmental pollution, and improves the working conditions of the construction personnel, so it is an ideal method of coil paving.


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When it is used in roof engineering, full bonding method, strip bonding method, point bonding method or empty laying method can be used for cold bonding coiled material.

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3、 Self adhesive construction

The construction of self-adhesive coiled material refers to the paving method of self-adhesive coiled material. When the self-adhesive coiled material is produced in the factory, a layer of pressure-sensitive adhesive or adhesive is coated on the bottom surface of modified asphalt coil, synthetic polymer membrane and PE film, and a layer of isolation paper is applied on the surface. During construction, as long as the isolation paper is stripped off, it can be directly paved. There are two kinds of self-adhesive coiled materials: polymer modified asphalt adhesive and synthetic polymer adhesive. Generally, the full bonding method is adopted for paving. In order to increase the bonding strength, the surface of the base course should be coated with base treatment agent; after drying, the coiled material should be paved in time.

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4、 Welding construction

Only PVC (polyvinyl chloride) waterproofing membrane and PE (polyethylene) waterproofing membrane are used in the construction of synthetic polymer membrane by welding method. The laying method of coil material is the same as that of general polymer coil material, and the lap joint is carried out by welding method. There are two welding methods: one is hot-melt welding (hot-air welding), that is, hot-air welding gun is used, and hot gas generated by electric heating is ejected from the welding nozzle to melt the coil surface to achieve welding fusion; the other is solvent welding (cold welding), which uses solvent (such as tetrahydrofuran) for bonding. There are also lap and butt joint. At present, most of our country adopt hot air welding method.

Welding method is also adopted for alloy metal coil construction, that is, electric heating is used to make the solder or welding rod cover the weld surface uniformly after being heated and melted, and then the metal coils are connected together by cooling.

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03 According to the paving method of waterproof materials during construction

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1、 Spraying construction

The waterproof coating is evenly pressed out from a sealed container by a pump to form a waterproof coating through a pump.

Spraying construction speed is fast, high efficiency, especially suitable for all kinds of roof construction. At the end of coating spraying, proper solvent or water should be used to clean the nozzle, delivery pipe and container in time according to the type of coating.

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2、 Brush painting construction

The paint can be applied by manual brush and long brush. Generally, dip brush method is used for brushing with brush, or brush evenly while pouring paint. When coating, the facade should be painted first, and then the plane. The coating facade should be dip coated, and the painting should be uniform. Pouring should be evenly poured, do not pour too much in one place, otherwise the coating is difficult to brush, which will cause uneven thickness. When brushing, bubbles should not be wrapped into the coating. In case of bubbles, they should be eliminated immediately. Brushing should be carried out according to the number of times determined by the test in advance. It is not allowed to brush too thick for the sake of saving labor and labor.

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3、 Scraping construction

Iron trowel or rubber sheet should be used for thick coating. In the process of scraping and coating construction, generally, the coating is directly dispersed on the base course, and scraped back and forth with a scraper to make its thickness uniform, no bottom exposure, no bubbles, and smooth surface, and then wait for it to dry. The coating with poor leveling property shall be compacted and troweled with iron trowel when the surface water collection is not yet formed. The time of plastering and pressing should be appropriate. If it is applied too early, it will not work; if it is too late, the coating will stick to the trowel and the crescent shaped mark will appear.

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4、 Infill construction

Filling construction mainly refers to the construction of sealing materials. The filling operation of sealing materials can be divided into hot filling method and cold embedding method. The construction method of high polymer sealing material is commonly used.

The sealing material constructed by hot pouring process needs to be heated on site to make it have fluidity. The hot pouring method is suitable for the sealing treatment of plane joints. Most of the cold embedding method is manual operation, which is filled with putty knife or scraper. The more advanced method is to use electric or manual caulking gun. ?

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04 According to the parts of waterproof works

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1、 Roof waterproof Engineering

Roof waterproofing is to prevent rainwater from entering the room from the roof. At present, there are also requirements for comprehensive utilization of the roof, such as activity place, parking lot, roof garden, water storage and heat insulation, planting roof, etc., and the waterproof layer of these houses is higher.

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2、 Toilet and floor waterproofing works

Toilet and floor waterproofing is to prevent domestic and production water and domestic, production sewage leakage to the floor, or through the partition wall into other rooms. Toilets and some production workshops have many pipelines and equipment, water consumption is concentrated, splashing is serious, and there are many acid-base liquids. Sometimes, it is required to prevent not only leakage, but also acid-base liquid erosion, especially for chemical production workshops.

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3、 Underground waterproof Engineering II. Toilet and floor waterproof Engineering

Underground engineering refers to underground engineering, protection engineering, municipal tunnel, mountain and underwater tunnel, cavern, subway and other buildings and structures of industrial and civil buildings. Waterproofing of underground engineering is the technical work of waterproofing design, waterproof construction and maintenance management for underground engineering. Due to the complex structure, special construction method, infiltration and erosion of surface water, groundwater and capillary water, as well as the influence of nearby hydrogeological changes caused by human factors, the waterproof fortification, waterproof construction, maintenance and management are more difficult and demanding.

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4、 Exterior wall waterproof Engineering

Exterior wall waterproofing is to prevent rainwater or water for cleaning the exterior wall from penetrating into the interior. The external wall waterproof has not been paid attention to, because compared with the roof, underground engineering, toilet and other parts, the leakage and the impact caused by leakage are smaller. However, with the increasing of the importance of the roof, the waterproof of the external wall and the living environment of the people is increasing. In China, the research on exterior wall waterproofing is still in its infancy. Under what conditions, the waterproof fortification structures for different structures and wall materials, and the further development of waterproof materials suitable for external walls need more research and summary.

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5、 Waterproof works of water storage tank and structures in water

The waterproof of water storage tank and liquid storage pool is to prevent water or liquid from leaking out. If it is set underground, it is also necessary to prevent groundwater from penetrating into it. Therefore, in addition to the water (liquid) pool structure itself has the waterproof (liquid) ability, the waterproof layer is generally set in the interior, and the waterproof materials required will not pollute the water (liquid) or be corroded by the storage liquid, and most of them use inorganic materials, such as polymer mortar and cement-based waterproof materials.

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6、 Waterproof bridge engineering

With the continuous deepening of China's reform and opening up, the rapid development of transportation facilities throughout the country, in the past 20 years, Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou and other large and medium-sized cities have built a large number of urban long-span bridges, viaducts, overpasses and other urban bridges, highway, first-class highway and other high-grade highways are increasing at a speed of more than 10000 km per year. However, many bridges do not do waterproof or use improper waterproof materials, resulting in serious damage problems such as water seepage, steel corrosion, pavement spalling, alkali aggregate reaction, concrete expansion and cracking caused by steel corrosion, which seriously affects the firmness and service life of bridges, the comfort and safety of driving. In recent years, people's understanding of the importance of urban road and bridge waterproofing is increasingly clear, and more and more bridges begin to use deck waterproofing system.

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Foreign developed countries, such as the United States, Japan and Western Europe, have set up special waterproof layer for bridges. Detailed provisions are made in terms of bridge structure type, surface material, waterproof technology, waterproof method, service performance, maintenance cost, etc., but there is no special construction specification and acceptance standard for road and bridge waterproofing in China. ?

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